We will discuss the main diagnostic and research applications of nerve biopsy. The chapter will be tackled starting from the elementary lesions including axonal degeneration, axonopathy, ganglioneuronopathy, and the pathology of the Schwann cell, node of Ranvier, and epineurial/perineurial structures. We will emphasize major contributions that nerve biopsy has given to the understanding of specific molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms of selected inherited and immunomediated neuropathies. Then, we will discuss current indications of nerve biopsy and its usefulness in addressing the diagnosis and treatment of selected disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Finally, we will focused on more sophisticated pathological techinques such as cryo-immuno electron microscopy, highlighting their roles in research.
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